|Sadia Humayra Mounata (ARCH 08 ,BUET ); Ahmed Yousuf (ARCH 08 ,BUET ); Bin Sayeed Bakhti (ARCH 08 ,BUET ); Suvodip Singha (URP 09 , BUET ); Shamima Nasrin (Civil 09 , BUET)
|Tejgaon Old Airport, Dhaka
|Competition entity: Association of BUET Alumni + IAB, IEB, BIP
The measure of any great civilization is in its cities, and the measure of a city’s greatness is to be found in the quality of its public spaces, its parks and squares. – John Ruskin.
Dhaka city is one of the highly dense city along with the other problem like high land-value, the public open spaces there are the precious spaces which we find rarely in Dhaka map. Urban open space enhances the environment, social and economic aspect of life which ultimately helps to grow a sustainable city. If anyone gives a swift glance upon the map of Dhaka city, he/she will readily pick ‘the old airport, Tejgaon’ other than ‘Hazrat Shahjalal Airport’ as the largest open space in whole city, which is practically restricted and underused. As the growth in northern part of Dhaka city, alongside the division of City Corporation in north and south, the old airport is practically becoming the center of the city. This 415 acres should be dedicated for the public use to enhance the quality of sustainable life of Dhaka people.
“We can build systems to engage people, but until we figure out why they aren’t engaged and using the public spaces that they already have today, nothing will change.”—Madison Mayor Paul Soglin on low-income communities & public space.
Though we have a little open left in Dhaka city, if we observe fully we can understand why these open spaces are not used fully. We only analyze about the five major parks in Dhaka city, there are many like that. But the major problem is lack of security also maintenance and that people don’t want to go although they have that eagerness to go there.
Where the urban Open Space failed in Dhaka city, we start from there.
So, by NOT avoiding the present problems which we already have in other public spaces in Dhaka, we learn from it and the focus was to create a place where the problems we already have will not be raised again.We have inspired by the two concepts, these are, ‘The defensible space theory of architect and city planner Oscar Newman’ and ‘Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)’
The defensible space theory: by Oscar Newman
Defensible Space relies on self-help rather than on government intervention, and so it is not vulnerable to government’s withdrawal of support. It depends on participation involvement to reduce crime and remove the presence of criminals. The theory argues that an area is safer when people feel a sense of ownership and responsibility for that piece of a community. There are five factors that make a defensible space i.e. territoriality. Natural survelience, image, Mileu and Safe adjoining area are incorporated in the design.
Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED):
Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is a multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior through environmental design. CPTED strategies rely upon the ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts. Generally speaking, most implementations of CPTED occur solely within the urbanized environment.
So, the approach of design is not the focusing ‘CPTED’ or ‘defensible space’ but undertaking these concepts and when designing, the things to keep in mind.
In Dhaka area we have four types of, which included green, recreation and relaxation.
Type of Green Open Space (scale of facilities) are Urban Parks,Urban Recreational Areas,,Urban Development Open Spaces,Functional Open Spaces.The idea is to incorporate these four types of green open spaces in one whole area where juxtaposition of all elements will collocate. Here, landscape and taskscape will join together to create a wholesome place of unity. The term Taskscape is often used by social anthropologist Tim Ingold. As Ingold has described the term: “just as the landscape is an array of related features, so – by analogy – the taskscape is an array of related activities.” Taskscape, then is a socially constructed space of human activity, taskscape as well as landscape, is to be considered as perpetually in process rather than in a static or otherwise immutable state. So here, in Design the two dimension is incorporating where nature and human are existing in temporal and spatial dimensions.
What makes a great public space: Creating it not designing
When, proceeding towards DESIGN phase we kept in mind all that, and wanted to create an integrated design which will be sustainable and will be a step to take a new dimension of designing the public place.
When the incorporation of activity, the activity spaces are created not in a definite area but it is temporal. In the time to time basis, the activity of a certain area in a certain places can be changed.
The accessibility in the site has to come from the outside land-use pattern of the area and the user groups. The entry is given on the basis of people lives or work in the surrounding. There would be two metro stations which will give abundant access to public in the site. So, the major decision was a connecting road to alleviate the huge journey from Jahangir gate to Agargaon point.
As for sociability, the increase of security will increase the participation of public. The use of places in time will change.
Comfort is one of the major point of a good public space. And as for that, natural surveillance, uses of trees with slim and high trunk and a distribution of light density is needed. Because, densified tree area makes a place of crime which make the public insecure.
Isovist is comprising a space from where other places can be seen. This large gathering spaces are the centers directing to the more scale down space which are scattering throughout the area.
Encouraging the present situation is a decision we come to take. When we had a chance to go the north side of the site, we found an existing urban agricultural field with irrigation pond, where a natural ecology has grown. So, this has encouraged us to keep the agricultural field and irrigation ponds.
Reuse of material and reducing CO2 footprint makes a project more sustainable. There was a large strip of runway, which material would be re-used to build the structures in this places.
We can dream big, but we are dreaming by stepping the foot on reality. As for that, realization and dream both are important. But to realize the dream we need to realize the facts. If the place is realize, it will be a place of recuperation, collocation and intimation, where people will come and feel the absence, in the presence of this place, it will experience people the journey of elements which is co-existing and intervening with each other.