|Dr. Sajid-Bin-DOZA, Mohammad Habib Reza, Ph.D & Shams Mansoor Ghani
Airports are catalyst of economic growth. An Airport serves as the regional and international gateway to the city in which it exists, hence fuel regional economy by facilitating local trades and tourism. The 20th century, like 18th and 19th centuries, was largely hit by massive development in transport technology. From the canal age we moved towards railway and eventually we reached to the age of motor cars and planes. By the beginning of the 21st century the airport terminal had become strategically the most significant structure in the world. An international airport has become more of a symbol of progress, freedom, trade and aspiration of it’s host country on the global stage. From the very first flight of the Wright Brother’s we have passed a century of architecture in developing a perfect airport.
The site of this airport is in Vanga, Khulna near Mongla port. The distance between the site and Khulna city is 20 kilometers and from the site, Mongla port is also 20 kilometers on the south. The location of this site makes this airport far more important for the local industries as well as the tourism since Sundarbans, the world’s largest mangrove forest, is near this location.
The region has unique geomorphic pattern of delta where land is crisscrossed by numerous water lines. These delta lines are the perfect example of free flowing lines. Taking reference from this deltaic landscape, the proposed terminal bears the attributes of continuous, free flowing form and spaces which provides flexibility in spatial articulation of complex terminal functions.
As per design standard, a typical ‘Airport Master Plan’ should develop on the basis of at least 20 years forecast of aviation demand (1). This projection is used to determine the extent of safeguarding required for future new or expanded facilities (terminal and airfield related); hence critically important for airport planning and design. That’s why the key consideration was to derive a design solution for the terminal building flexible enough to expand or grow on need basis. In doing so, the main air concourse is designed in a modular system, so that, new extensions can be added in line to balance the future demand.
The skin is designed in a way that it works as a passive mechanism to provide climate control. In that area during day time heat is quite intense. It is preferred to protect the structure from the direct solar gain and also use the defused light during day time to light up the whole building. For such a large infrastructure like airport, full utilization of filtered daylight can significantly minimize the cost of artificial lighting and can save energy.
The structural system is combined with two main truss systems. One is the main steel frame which hold the vertical load and to counter the load a mesh structure has been designed. By combining both the frames together the main structural system is designed.
Functionally, the departure and arrival traffic are separated vertically in two different levels. In addition a mezzanine layer is added in between- a distinct feature commonly seen in modern airports.
Finally, an international airport in this location will not only increase the industrial growth of the south-western region but also potentially contribute to the national GDP by connecting the region with the world.
1. Landrum & Brown, 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design: Guidebook(Vol. 25). Transportation Research Board, USA.
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